The Rules of Netball may be placed into two generic groups, those which infringe only a rule and are called minor rules although they make up the majority of the rules, and those which infringe the rights of an opponent and consequently are called major rules.
The minor rules, among which are the infringements of held ball, stepping, breaking, offside and over a third, are penalized with a free pass.
The major rules, which mainly consist of obstruction, intimidation, contact and discipline are penalized with a penalty pass or penalty pass or shot. In this penalty, the offender must stand out of play until the ball has left the thrower's hands. By the combination of the above, only the Goal Attack and Goal Shooter are able to score goals directly. A ball that passes through the hoop, but has been thrown either from outside the circle or by a player not the GA or GS, is deemed a "no goal". Furthermore, a shooter (GA or GS) may not shoot for a goal if a "free pass" has been awarded for an infringement such as stepping, offside, or using the post.
View more detailed rules in the Umpiring section of the site.